• ## GLE-SciPS

STANDARDS FOR SCIENCE
- - EARTH SCIENCE - - LIFE SCIENCE - - PHYSICAL SCIENCE - -

Three Physical Science units are described. These can all be taught in one year or they can be distributed across years, depending on the preference of a district.
STANDARD 1:
Students understand the processes of scientific investigation and design, conduct, communicate about, and evaluate such investigations.
By the end of the year, students will be able to:
1b. Use examples to demonstrate that scientific ideas are used to explain previous observations and to predict future events
explain how a particulate model of matter allowed scientists to explain phenomena such as evaporation, conservation of mass, and diffusion
1c. Ask questions and state predictions that lead to different types of scientific investigation
restate the question or describe the problem they are answering by doing an investigation
state a prediction and support it based on prior experiences and/or science knowledge (for example, “I predict _____ because _______.”)
explain the difference between a hypothesis and a prediction
recognize a question that can be answered by investigation
1d. Create a written plan for an investigation
propose possible ways to find the answer to a question they are investigating
suggest a simple investigation that would allow them to answer one of the questions they generate
1e. Use appropriate tools, technologies, and measurement units to gather and organize data
use tools (for example, balance, thermometer, graduated cylinder) typical of science to gather data
use quantitative as well as qualitative data when making observations
set up and label bar or line graphs of individual and/or class data
make drawing to illustrate key characteristics and label
1f. Interpret and evaluate data in order to formulate conclusions
answer questions and describe general trends using their graph
use evidence to generate explanations
compare results with prediction and answer the question they are investigating
identify things that could cause their results to differ from the rest of the class (sources of error)
1g. Communicate results of their investigations
share results and explanations with other students
1h. Use metric units in measuring, calculating, and reporting results
estimate length using mm, cm, m, g, mL, cm3
label units
1i. Explain that scientific investigations sometimes result in unexpected findings that lead to new questions and more investigations
generate questions during and after an investigation based on their observations, data, or variables
suggest a simple investigation to answer one of the questions they generate

STANDARD 2:
Physical Science: Students know and understand common properties, forms, and changes in matter and energy.
CONSERVATION OF MASS
In this unit, students learn that mass does not change even if the substances change form or appearance.
By the end of this unit, students will be able to:
2.3a. Identify and classify factors causing change within a system
identify ways that substances can change (dissolve, change phase, produce gas, react with another substance)
2.3b. Identify and predict what will change and what will remain unchanged when matter experiences an energy change
explain why mass is often a more useful measurement than volume
realize that very small substances (for example, dust particles) still have mass
provide evidence that gas has mass and volume
give several examples of how matter can change without resulting in a change in mass
predict what will happen to mass and volume when matter undergoes a specific change (for example, a solid melts, a powder dissolves)
use a graph of class data to decide if mass has been conserved
give two pieces of evidence that a solid doesn’t disappear when it dissolves
2.3c. Observe and gather data to support the concept of conservation of mass within a closed system
use examples to show that phases may change or new substances be produced when substances are mixed but the mass doesn’t change
distinguish between a closed and open system
design an experiment that shows the law of conservation of mass
explain why an observed change in mass may have occurred
important scientific concept
give examples of where the law of conservation of mass applies in the life and earth sciences
2.3d. Describe, measure, and calculate mass before and after a chemical or physical change within a system
calculate the change in mass that results when matter undergoes a change of some type
describe what happens to the mass of a substance/object when it changes (for example, a candle burns, droplets appear on the outside of a glass)

CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES
In this unit, students learn that some properties of a substance are always the same, no matter how much of the substance is present.
By the end of this unit, students will be able to:
2.1a. Examine, describe, compare, measure, and classify substances based on common physical and chemical properties
measure boiling point, melting point, and freezing point of substances
graph data to find boiling point, melting point, and freezing point
compare graphs of boiling point, melting point, and freezing point to determine if substances are the same or different
sketch the shape of a graph that shows how the temperature of a substance changes as it goes from solid to liquid to gas or vice versa
compare and contrast the terms freezing and boiling points
find the volume of objects with regular and irregular shapes
measure mass and volume and use the data to calculate the density of a substance
explain why the density of a gas can change
describe other characteristic properties (for example solubility, radioactivity, thermal expansion, spectroscopy)
list factors that affect the rate of dissolving
describe how solubility changes with temperature
predict how changing the amount of a substance affects density, boiling point, melting point, and freezing point
know the density, boiling point, melting point, and freezing point of water
predict whether or not a substance would float in water based on its density
use multiple characteristic properties to identify a substance
2.1b. Separate mixtures of substances based on their properties
use boiling point to separate a mixture of liquids (fractional distillation)
explain how fractional distillation works
use filtering to separate a mixture of solids and liquids
know that mixtures are made of two or more substances
separate mixtures into pure substances by using their characteristic properties and then reverse the  process to form the mixture again
2.1c. Classify and describe matter in terms of elements, compounds, and mixtures
break down and create compounds using electrolysis, heat, or acids
realize that a compound has characteristic properties that are different from the characteristic properties of the substances from which it is made
define elements as pure substances that cannot be broken down by electrolysis, heat, or adding acid
compare and contrast mixtures and compounds

STRUCTURE OF MATTER
In this unit, students gather evidence that helps them understand the particulate model of matter.
By the end of this unit, students will be able to:
2.1c. Classify and describe matter in terms of elements, compounds, mixtures, atoms, and molecules
identify a substance as being either a compound or element depending on whether or not it can be broken down by electrolysis, heat, or adding acid
know that some elements give off discrete particles (are radioactive)
know that atoms combine to form molecules and molecules make up compounds
describe an element as being made up of very small, identical particles called atoms
know the names of the four elements that are especially important for life: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
know that oxygen is the most abundant element on Earth
name at least four examples of substances that contain oxygen
know that all substance on Earth are made up of different combinations of the elements (of which there are about 100)
2.1d. Develop simple models to explain observed properties of matter
explain how radioactivity suggest the particulate nature of matter (for example, using a cloud chamber, Geiger counter, or exposed photographic film)
use the particulate nature of matter to explain each of the following phenomena
1) the volume of a solution is often less than the sum of the volumes of the solvent and solute
2) the diffusion of two liquids when mixed
3) a phase change
4) conservation of mass
describe how an increase or decrease in temperature can cause a change in phase
trace an imaginary molecule of water through all phases of the water cycle (evaporation, condensation, and precipitation)

STANDARD 3:
Life Science: Students know and understand the characteristics and structure of living things, the processes of life, and how living things interact with each other and their environment.
Note: This standard is not addressed in this model of assigning expectations. All of the life science benchmarks are described under the heading “Life Science.”

STANDARD 4:
Earth and Space Science: Students know and understand the processes and interactions of Earth’s systems and the structure and dynamics of Earth and other objects in space.
Note: This standard is not addressed in this model of assigning expectations. All of the earth and space science benchmarks are described under the heading, “Earth and Space Science.”

STANDARD 5:
Students know and understand interrelationships among science, technology, and human activity and how they can affect the world.
Note: This standard is not addressed as a separate unit; rather, it is integrated into many of the units at each grade level.
By the end of the year, students will be able to:
5d. Describe how people use science and technology in their professions
describe some of the techniques (for example, fractional distillation, chromatography, electrolysis) chemists use in the laboratory
explain how the petroleum industry could use boiling points to separate petroleum into its by-products

STANDARD 6:
Students understand that science involves a particular way of knowing and understand common connections among scientific disciplines.
Note: This standard is not addressed as a separate unit; rather, it should be integrated where appropriate into the units at each grade level.
By the end of the year, students will be able to:
6a. Explain why a controlled experiment must have comparable results when repeated
explain the reason for doing multiple trials of an experiment
6b. Give examples of how scientific knowledge changes as new knowledge is acquired and previous ideas are modified
know that the Greeks used to think that there were four “elements”—water, air, fire, and earth
6c. Describe contributions to the advancement of science made by people in different cultures and at different times in history
identify Antoine Lavoisier as having described the Law of Conservation of Mass
know when and where Lavoisier lived
6d. Identify variables and conditions related to change
identify variables when doing a controlled experiment
6f. Use a model to explain observations
use a particulate model of matter to explain phenomena such as evaporation, condensation, and diffusion